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Indonesia

Indonesia

,[a] officially the Republic of Indonesia,[b] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It includes Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi It consists of more than 17,000 islands, including parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago nation and the 14th largest country by area, with 1,904,569 square kilometers (735,358 sq mi). With a population of over 275 million, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world and the largest Muslim-majority country in the world. The island of Java is the world's most populous island, home to more than half of the country's population.

Indonesia is a presidential republic with an elected legislature. It has 37 states, eight of which have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second most populous urban area in the world. Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor It is bordered by land on the eastern side of Malaysia and Singapore, Vietnam Thailand Philippines Australia It also shares a border with Palau and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). Despite its large population and densely populated areas, Indonesia has vast wilderness areas that support the world's biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable area for trade since the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from earlier centuries, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, and European missionaries spread Christianity. Portugal Although the French and British ruled at some point. The Dutch were the dominant colonial power in the archipelago for most of their 350-year existence. The concept of "Indonesia" emerged in the early 20th century, culminating in the Indonesian Declaration of Independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Netherlands recognized Indonesia's sovereignty despite armed and diplomatic conflict. Two.

In Indonesia, the Javanese language is the largest ethnic group and consists of hundreds of language groups. national language cultural diversity; A shared identity defined by religious pluralism within the Muslim-majority population ("unity in diversity" literally means "many, one") is formed. Rebellion against colonialism. Indonesia's economy is the 17th largest in the world by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by PPP. It is a regional power and is considered a middle power in world affairs. Myanmar is the United Nations, World Trade Organization G20, non-partisan movement group; Association of Southeast Asian Nations East Asia Summit; It is a member of several multilateral organizations, including the D-8 and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Cooperation


Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles.[166] As the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia,[167] the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. Per a 2022 estimate, it is the world's 17th largest economy by nominal GDP and 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.289 trillion and US$3.995 trillion, respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is US$14,535, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,691.[9] The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%).[168] Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%).[169]

Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably.[170] Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency.[170] A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.[170] This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%.[171] Trade barriers reduction from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that severely impacted the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and a 78% inflation. The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth.[172]

Relatively steady inflation[173] and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index[174] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption,[175] helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession,[176] and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997.[177] As of 2019, 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%.[178] During the first year of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the economy suffered its first recession since the 1997 crisis but has recovered in the following year.[179]

Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the primary imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners.[180]

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